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3.2.51. SUBSTR(string,start[,[length][,padchar]])

Returns the substring of string that starts at start, and has the
length length. Length defaults to the rest of the string. Start
must be a positive whole, while length can be any non-negative
whole number.

It is not an error for start to be larger than the length of
string.  If length is specified and the sum of length and start
minus 1 is greater that the length of string, then the result will
be padded with padchars to the specified length. The default value
for padchar is the <space> character.

     SUBSTR(‘Foo bar’, 3)          –>   ‘o bar’
     SUBSTR(‘Foo bar’, 3, 3)       –>   ‘o b’
     SUBSTR(‘Foo bar’, 4, 6)       –>   ‘ bar  ‘
     SUBSTR(‘Foo bar’, 4, 6, ‘*’)  –>   ‘ bar**’
     SUBSTR(‘Foo bar’, 9, 4, ‘*’)  –>   ‘****’